While agreement on the long-term global effort to tackle climate change is stalling, there are still hopes that a deal can be struck on international aviation and shipping.
The EU will be particularly keen for agreement to be reached. It has come under intense pressure from Japan, the US and, today, India in respect to the inclusion of aviation in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme. Today in a press conference, India called the move a “disguised trade action taken in the name of climate.”
There are eight options currently on the table:
- Option 1: Annex 1 countries work through the International Civic Aviation Organisation (ICAO) and the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) to develop a scheme to encourage the limitation and reduction of emissions from international aviation and maritime transport which respects the UNFCCC principles of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities and distinguishes between developing and developed countries. It adds that Annex I countries should refrain from taking unilateral action. Progress will be reported at regular intervals to the COP.
- Option 2: Annex 1 countries work exclusively through the ICAO and the IMO to develop a scheme to limit and reduce emissions from international aviation emissions and maritime bunker fuels. Again, unilateral action should be avoided. Developing countries should not be restricted in developing these sectors.
- Option 3: A scheme to limit and reduce emissions from international aviation and maritime transport would be developed through the ICAO and the IMO to meet global emissions targets of 10% and 20% respectively below 2005 levels in 2020 for international aviation and maritime transport. Market-based mechanisms could be employed. These and other activities, policies and measures agreed through the ICAO and IMO should not lead to competitive distortions or carbon leakage.
- Option 4: A scheme consistent with the 2°C target would be developed through the ICAO and IMO. Market-based instruments would be permitted. Progress would be reported to the COP at regular intervals. This option doesn't differentiate between developed and developing countries.
- Option 5: That the ICAO and IMO develop a scheme to limit and reduce emissions from international aviation and maritime transport consistent with the 2°C target. Market-based instruments would be permitted. Progress would be reported to the COP at regular intervals. This must take into account principles and objectives of the Convention, such as common and differentiated responsibilities.
- Option 6: That the ICAO and IMO develop a global framework to address emissions from international aviation and maritime transport, while taking into account the principles and provisions of the Convention.
- Option 7: An open ended option that simply states that a scheme should be pursued through the ICAO and the IMO.
- Option 8: The ICAO and IMO are to continue without delay their activities for the development of policy approaches and measures to limit and reduce GHG from civil aviation and maritime bunker fuels. It should establish sufficiently ambitious mid-term and long-term global goals for reductions and should report to COP at regular intervals regarding progress.
We should have a clearer idea this evening which – if any - have survived.